German is the official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Belgium, and Luxembourg. German-speaking minorities also exist in other 42 countries around the world.

It is estimated that around 130 million people speak German as either a native or a second language, making it the most spoken native language in the EU.

German is a Germanic language and is descended from West Germanic.

As a Germanic language, German is closely related to English, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic, Yiddish, Faroese, but also Afrikaans.

German is considered a challenging language to learn, requiring an estimated 600 hours of studies to reach the B1 level.

The German language has complex grammar. There are also numerous exceptions and difficult syntax. In German, learning can be difficult because of numerous words with similar sounds and identical words with multiple meanings, often only distinguished by articles. Articles do not adhere to fixed rules.

The German language is based on the Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters.

Unique features of German include three umlauts (ä, ö, ü) that alter the sound and meaning of words, as well as a distinction between upper and lower case. Notably, all nouns require capitalization. The German language has articles that can alter the meaning of a word. For instance, „der Kiefer“ means “jaw”, while „die Kiefer“ is a pine.

There are twenty major dialect groups in German. In addition, the German language can be divided into Low, Middle, and Upper German. Low German is spoken in Northern Germany, Middle German in Central Germany, and Upper German in Southern Germany. The best known dialects of Germany are Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian, Saxon, Hamburg, and Berlin.


The greatest peculiarity of German culture is that it was influenced by numerous other cultures, for example, Germanic, Celtic, and Roman.

Typical festivals like Christmas or Easter play an important role in German culture. However, Germany is also known for its regional festivals such as the magnificent Carnival or the Oktoberfest in Munich.

A special custom in Germany is the school cone given to children on their first day of school. It contains sweets and small gifts to literally sweeten the step into a new phase of life. Another important tradition in Germany is the „Reinfeiern“ into the birthday, i.e. the person starts their birthday party on the evening before the actual birthday and continue celebration at midnight.

Germany is famous for Bratwurst and Carrywurst. Other typical German dishes include Sauerkraut (fermented white cabbage), Spätzle (egg noodles), Pretzel (baked dough snack), and white sausages.


Germany’s most important export goods are motor vehicles and vehicle parts, in addition to machinery and chemical products.

In 2021, Germany’s GDP amounted to $4.26 trillion.

Population/Social Aspects/Political Aspects

Around 83.2 million people live in Germany.

Germany is a republic and a democratic state.

The capital of Germany is Berlin.